•"The following April the Apple headquarters
was established at 95 Wigmore Street. Grey suits were conspicuous
by their absence, though the Beatles emulated the corporate way
in one respect. The 15 directors were all men. The Managing Director
and his Assistant were the bands two roadies" (information
courtesy of 'New Internationalist' article by new internationalist
on-line issue 212 - October 1990. Authors: Alan Hughes and Chris
called it a psychedelic Woolworth" (information courtesy of
'New Internationalist' article by new internationalist on-line issue
212 - October 1990. Authors: Alan Hughes and Chris Brazier).
•In February '68 The Beatles, Ltd. changed its name to Apple
Corps, Ltd. Apple Corps, Ltd: Apple Electronics, Apple Films Ltd.,
Apple Management, Apple Music Publishing, Apple Overseas, Apple
Publicity, Apple Records, Apple Retail, Apple Tailoring Civil and
Theatrical, Apple Television (planned), Apple Wholesale (planned).
•In January 1968, Beatles Ltd. changed its name to Apple
Corps. Ltd. and registered the Apple trademark in forty-seven countries
(Granados, M. Those Were the Days. p. 24).
•Apple took out a one-year lease on offices in an eight
story building at 95 Wigmore Street (Granados, M. Those Were the
Days. p. 24).
•Apple had five divisions: Electronics, film, publishing,
records, and retailing.
•It is important to note that Apple was not set up to replace
Epstein and NEMS. It was created as a tax shelter to compliment,
rather than replace, the existing business structures (Granados,
M. Those Were the Days. p. 6)
•The first thing The Beatles did to create a new company
was form Beatles and Co. in April 1967. It was more or less the
same as their original Beatles Ltd. But under the new system each
Beatle would own 5% of Beatles and Co. and a new corporation owned
collectively by the four Beatles (which would soon be known as Apple)
would be given control of the remaining 80% of Beatles and Co. Individual
songwriting royalties would still be paid directly to the writer
or writers of a particular song, All of the money earned by the
Beatles as a group would go directly to Beatles and Co. The money
earned as a group would be taxed at a far lower corporate tax rate
(Granados, M. Those were the Days. p. 6).
idea Brian came up with was a company called Apple. His idea was
to plough their money into a chain of shops not unlike Woolworth's
in concept-Apple boutiques, Apple posters, Apple records. Brian
needed an outlet for his boundless energy (Lennon, Cynthia. Twist
•Ringo: We tried to form Apple with Clive Epstein, but he
wouldn't have it...he didn't believe in us I suppose...he didn't
think we could do it. He thought we were four wild men and we were
going to spend all his money and make him broke. But that was the
original idea of Apple-to form it with NEMS...we thought now Brian's
gone let's really amalgamate and get this thing going, let's make
records and get people on our label and things like that. So we
formed Apple and they formed NEMS, which is exactly the same thing
as we are doing. It was a family tie and we thought it would be
a good idea to keep it in, and then we saw how the land lay and
we tried to get out (Granados, M. Those Were the Days. p. 11).
•Although a few artists like The Tokens and Frank Sinatra
had formed their own labels long before, The Beatles were the group
that started the trend toward artist companies in the sixties. They
used Apple as the economic unit spring their ideas on the world.
Set up with $2 million after Brian Epstein's death in 1967, it had
five divisions: records, music publishing, films, electronics, and
retailing (Chapple and Garofalo. Rock and Roll is here to Pay, p.
•The Apple label was distributed by Capitol from the beginning.
As Phil Spector pointed out the group would have been "fighting
their old Capitol product" if they had chosen to distribute
with another company. Capitol would even have been able to release
tapes from sessions that the Beatles judged inferior (Chapple and
Garofalo. Rock and Roll is here to Pay, p. 82).
•To promote Apple's inaugural singles, Apple hired the prestigious
Wolfe and Ollins advertising agency to develop a campaign to introduce
Apple to industry VIPs and the press (Granados, S. Those Were the
Days. p. 49).
•It would have been very easy for Apple to have barred these
people [a band of hippies called Emily's Family] from the building,
but instead, they were given day time use of the fourth floor guest
lounge and access to the Apple kitchen (Granados, S. Those Were
the Days. p. 51).
•Ron Kass wanted to establish Apple Publishing in the U.S..
In late 1968, he hired an American named Mike O'Connor to oversee
Apple's American publishing operations (Granados, S. Those Were
the Days. p. 54).
•Mortimer's Guy Masson: So we told our manager and he followed
up, and the next thing you know, they bought us off Mercury, and
we're signing contracts with Apple Publishing and Recording (Granados,
S. Those Were the Days. p. 59).
•Since Harrison-like the other three Beatles-was unable
to read or write music notation, he had to hire an outside music
arranger to assist him with the "Wonderwall" recording
sessions. His arranger of choice was London native John Barnham
(Granados, S. Those Were the Days. p. 59).
•Concerning the move in 1969 from Wigmore Street to Saville
Row: While most of the furniture and files from the Wigmore Street
office would arrive intact at Savile Row, important paperwork was
mislaid and some even lost. Terry Doran recalls that he and other
Apple employees simply dumped all of their paperwork into the back
of a black cab and had it driven over to Savile Row (Granados, S.
Those Were the Days. p. 65).
•All of them left with some choice merchandise [from the
boutiques free giveaway], except for Ringo Starr, who lamented to
Rolling Stone that he had been unable to find anything in his size
(Granados, S. Those Were the Days. p. 44).
•Apple Books would actually put out one book in early 1970,
which was the book that accompanied the initial pressing of the
Let It Be album. Although the book was credited to Apple Publishing,
all of the work on the project was actually done by freelancers
(Granados, S. Those Were the Days. p. 44).
•After several months of negotiations, Apple finally signed
a worldwide manufacturing and distribution deal with EMI in late
June of 1968. Under this agreement, Capitol Records would distribute
and promote Apple in the United States and EMI would handle the
distribution and promotion for the rest of the world (Granados,
S. Those Were the Days. p. 44).
•Ken Kessey was supplied with a typewriter, a tape recorder,and
a small back office in the Apple building to record his thoughts
on the sixties. The tape was allegedly submitted to Peter Asher,
but no further work was done on the project. The tape remains unreleased
(Granados, S. Those Were the Days. p. 77).
•The group's decision to lay the foundation of this ambitious
project was twofold. The first was purely financial. The Beatles,
like all top earners in sixties Britain, were extremely highly taxed...The
second reason for the creation of Apple was at once personal and
philanthropic. In the wake of Brian's death, the Beatles thought
they should take a greater part in managing their affairs and artistic
output. They envisioned that founding their own company with a number
of different departments would do just that (O'Dell, Denis. At the
Apple's Core, p.62-63).
•Stephen Friedland (Brute Force King of Fuh) claims to have
never signed a contract with either Apple Records or Publishing
(although he has a letter from Mal Evans that mentions that Peter
Asher had received his contract), nor did he receive any money from
Apple (Granados, S. Those Were the Days. p. 75-76).
•Since Apple's inception, Paul McCartney and John Lennon
had been very interested in launching a budget-line label to issue
what would essentially be known three decades later as "audio
books". In October 1968, Apple hired Barry Miles, who co-owned
the Indica bookshop with John Dunbar and Peter Asher, to manage
the proposed spoken-word label. The initial idea of Zapple was that
it would release avant-garde and spoken word records at a reduced
price that would be comparable to that of a paperback novel. While
the idea looked good on paper, the reality was that when the few
records actually put out by Zapple finally made it into the shops,
they were priced like any other full-priced music album (Granados,
S. Those Were the Days. p. 76).
•Neil Aspinall: We didn't have a single piece of paper.
No contracts. The lawyer, the accountants and Brian,whoever, had
that. Maybe The Beatles had been given copies of various contracts,
I don't know. I didn't know what the contract was with EMI, or with
the film people or the publishers or anything at all. So it was
a case of building up a filing system, find out what was going on
while were were trying to continue doing something (Granados, M.
Those Were the Days. p. 19).
•Rockmine.com includes a well-written account on the history
of Apple Corps Ltd.
•The establishment of Apple involved the Beatles collateralizing
themselves by buying and incorporating a stake in their own worth
for the same price at which their existing company, The Beatles,
Ltd., was valued. This meant no capital gains, thus no capital gains
tax (O'Del, Denis. At the Apple's Core, p. 63).
•For the first few months of Apple's existence, it did not
even have an office-most Apple business was conducted from the NEMS
building. It was not until the autumn of 1967 that Apple finally
opened a London office. Since the Beatles already owned a four-story
building at 94 Baker Street that had been purchased as an investment
property by their accountants, they decided that Baker Street was
as good a location as any for Apple. They set up an office for Apple
Publishing in the Baker Street building in September (Granados,
M. Those Were the Days. p. 11-12).
•Denis O'Del: It turned out that the Beatles were in the
process of forming a new organization. The group's decision to lay
the foundations of this ambitious project was twofold. The first
was purely financial. The Beatles, like all top earners in sixties'
Britain, were extremely highly taxed...The second reason for this
creation of Apple was at once personal and philanthropic. Apple
was conceived gradually but evolved gradually, on the principal
that it would be a multi-faceted master company with a number of
divisions encompassing records, films, clothes retail, books and
other sectors. It also meant that they could diversify into other
areas via a company that could manage and finance aspiring artists
from a range of formal disciplines,including musicians, film makers,
designers, and writers. (O'Dell, Dennis. At the Apple's Core. p.
•We set up an "Executive Board" of Apple before
Brian died, including Brian, the accountant, a solicitor, Neil Aspinall,
myself, and then sat down to work out ways of spending the money.
One big idea was to set up a chain of shops designed only to sell
cards; birthday cards, Christmas cards, anniversary cards. When
the boys heard about that they all condemned the scheme as the most
boring yet. Sure that they could come up with much better brainwaves,
they began to get involved themselves. Their idea was that business
should be fun. Why should businessmen glare at each other across
desks? I quite agree (Taylor, A. p. 108).
•Geoff Swettenham (Grapefruit): Apple paid for our house
and gave us a retainer every week. They kept us alive basically.
They got us a great flat just off Baker Street...except for George,
who got his own flat because he was married with a kid, but the
three of us lived there and Apple paid for everything (Granados,
M. Those Were the Days. p. 15).
•John Perry (Grapefruit): Nems basically put us on a retainer
and also gave us a car and accounts in various restaurants and clubs,
so we could just sign for stuff. It was help yourself to be honest.
We were told to go to Martin Wesson at Nems-who was the accountant-and
we were told to go tell him how much we wanted. Nems also paid for
our flats (Granados, M. p. 15).
•The property in Saville Row cost a fortune to renovate
and to install a recording studio. Luxurious furnishings were ordered
and delivered. Drink cabinets were filled to overflowing. Every
comfort was contained in that building, but the whole venture lacked
a man such as Brian to take charge. It was like a ship without a
captain and it sank lower and lower supporting the dead weight of
numerous freeloaders. It became a Mecca for drop-outs and out-of-work
aspiring musicians. I could see us all being swallowed up in a quagmire
of inefficiency. Big business was not their forte, and they had
found themselves losing a game that they didn't know how to play
(Lennon, Cynthia. Twist p. 152).
•Beatles: A Fab Four in Partnership. Dr. Andrew Jackson
1996 (First published Australian Doctor January 1996). The Beatles
embraced the management philosophy of incremental and continuous
improvement in quality, in critical areas relating to output -Total
Quality Management- long before its acceptance and implementation
outside of Japan in the late 1980s.
•John: "The aim of the company isn't really a stack
of gold teeth in the bank. We've done that bit. It's more of a trick
to see if we can actually get artistic freedom within a business
structure, to see if we can create nice things and sell them without
charging three times our cost".
•Reporter in 1963-64: Would you ever have your own record
John: We would never start our own label. It's too much trouble
•Beatles to record for their own Apple label: Apple Records,
a branch of the music division of the Beatles' Apple Corps., Ltd.,
announces that contracts have been signed between Apple and Capitol
Records (for the USA and Canada) for Capitol to manufacture and
distribute all record product for North America in New York and
Los Angeles. The deals were concluded this week after prolonged
negotiations between the Beatles and their representatives and the
heads of Capitol. The Beatles will henceforth be released on their
own label, "Apple".
•Caleb, a psychic, reportedly authorized some business deals
•Although the Beatles were under contract to EMI, the Beatles
were free to align Apple with any label they wanted (S. Granados.
Those Were the Days. p. 32).
•Alistair Taylor: NEMS Enterprises has been decisively upstaged
by the Beatles' new company, Apple. Apparently, the government takes
a kindly view of new businesses being set up and there are generous
financial concessions. An operation like this was planned well before
Brian died, but Brian wasn't interested in the workings of it at
all, although he approved of the idea in principal (Taylor, A. p.
•Apprentices Of The Beatles. From the Danish magazine "Vi
Unge" (We Young) Dec. 1974.
While Beatles still had big hopes to make Apple into a company that
were different, but still made a lot of money for them, Badfinger
were one of the groups they really counted on. Badfinger made one
good LP after another, often sounding a lot like The Beatles. But
Apple lost Badfinger just as they were about to be a very big success.
Now Badfinger are recording for Warner Brothers, and has lost every
connection to George Harrison, who was the Beatle that helped them
the most. The biggest hit the group has had is "Without You"
a track that Harry Nilsson also has recorded. But they are sure
that the future is bright and promising. They are now working hard
to make a record that will give them the final push to fame!
•John declared: "If we let Apple go on the way it is
we'll be broke in six months".
•John Lennon later told me that Apple was in reality a product
of management. "See", John said, "one thing people
never knew was that Apple was not our idea and was certainly never
Paul's idea, as he has gone on about. Apple was presented to us
as a reality by the Epsteins in '67 before Brian died. Brian and
his furniture salesman brother Clive. And they hadn't the slightest
f***ing idea what they were doing. It was really just a loony tax
scheme in the end. They said we had all this cash about to come
in and the only way around paying the taxes was to invest in businesses.
But we never would have come up with the notion of running a clothes
store. The Beatles pushing rags? Right. Right. No, it was pure and
simple a tax kite. Our incomes would be hidden inside Apple. Then
the money would be moved around" (Flippo, p. 248).
•Alex Millen, a 'loitering pavement fixture', said that
the Beatles "did strengthen the belief that Joe Soap was important
and, yes, you too could have something to say" (Sunday Times
•At one point it was suggested that this be a real estate
company: That was the original idea for lack of anything else (Granados,
M. Those were the Days. p. 7).
•One of the early ideas for the Beatles' new company was
to set up a chain of record shops across England, the idea that
the Beatles would be able to amass sizable property holdings under
the pretext of purchasing shop space (Granados, M. Those Were the
Days. p. 7).
•Derek Taylor: "Instead of paying nineteen and six
on the pound. We paid only sixteen shilling...Apple was set up purely
and simple as a tax saving project...Apple was never meant to try
to save the world despite popular myth".
•Dennis: You went with Warner Bros. because Apple was folding
at the time?
Mike: Yeah. It had nothing to do with me, I was just the drummer.
I wanted to stay with Apple just "cause we were Apple. I didn't
give a f**k who was managing Apple, as long as it was our statement.
I think we should've. Allen Klein, or ... I didn't give a sh**!
The actual figurehead was Apple and The Beatles. And Warner Bros.
was like dangling the big carrot. They really dangled the big carrot
for 3 1/2 million dollars. It was good in those days (interview
with Mike Gibbins of Badfinger by Dennis Dalcin).
•Apple was declared the most successful new record company
of the year for 1968.
•The building at 3 Saville Row cost an estimated £500,000.
•The Apple label lasted until 1976.
•The Beatles were advised that they would lose £2
million if they didn't invest in a business...thus Apple.
•'Those Were The Days' sold 4,000,000 in four months worldwide.
•Apple's world sales since August '68 now total some 16,192,126
(Press release to UPI, AP, and Reuters).